Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) is the U.S. military’s operational name for the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIL, in the vernacular, Daesh), including both the campaign in Iraq and the campaign in Syria, with a closely-related campaign in Libya. Since 18th September 2018, the U.S. Army’s III Armored Corps has been responsible for Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF—OIR). The campaign is primarily waged by American air forces in support of local allies, most prominently the Iraqi security forces and Syrian Democratic Forces. Combat ground troops, mostly special forces and artillery, have also been deployed, especially in Iraq. 75-80% of the airstrikes have been conducted by the military of the United States, with the other 20-25% by the United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Canada, the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Jordan.
According to the Pentagon, by 23rd March 2019, the day of ISIL’s territorial defeat in Syria, CJTF-OIR and partner forces had liberated nearly 110,000 square kilometers (42,471 square miles) of land and 7.7 million people from ISIL, the vast majority of the self-proclaimed caliphate’s territory and subjects. By October 2017, around the time of ISIL’s territorial defeat in Iraq, CJTF-OIR claimed that around 80,000 ISIL militants had been killed in all actions excluding those targeted by Russian and Syrian strikes. By the end of August 2019 it had conducted 34,573 strikes. Tens of thousands more were killed by partner forces on the ground (the Syrian Democratic Forces alone claimed to have killed 25,336 ISIL fighters by the end of 2017)
Unlike their coalition partners, and unlike previous combat operations, no name was initially given to the conflict against ISIL by the U.S. government. The decision to keep the conflict nameless drew considerable media criticism.
The U.S. decided in October 2014 to name its military efforts against ISIL as “Operation Inherent Resolve”; the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) news release announcing the name noted that:
According to CENTCOM officials, the name INHERENT RESOLVE is intended to reflect the unwavering resolve and deep commitment of the U.S. and partner nations in the region and around the globe to eliminate the terrorist group ISIL and the threat they pose to Iraq, the region and the wider international community. It also symbolizes the willingness and dedication of coalition members to work closely with our friends in the region and apply all available dimensions of national power necessary—diplomatic, informational, military, economic—to degrade and ultimately destroy ISIL.
The US Defense Department announced at the end of October 2014 that troops operating in support of Operation Inherent Resolve after 15th June were eligible for the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal.
By 4th December 2014, three U.S. service members had died from accidents or non-combat injuries.
On 22nd October 2015, a U.S. Master Sergeant, Joshua Wheeler, was Killed in action when he, with about 30 other U.S. special operations soldiers and a Peshmerga unit, conducted a prison break near Hawija, in which about 70 hostages were rescued, five ISIL members were captured and “a number” were killed or wounded.. Sergeant Major Thomas Payne who was then a Sergeant First Class was award the Medal of Honor for his actions during the operation. The Kurdistan Regional Government said after the raid that none of the 15 prisoners it was intended to rescue were found. Starting in May North American Rockwell OV-10 Broncos joined the project flying combat missions over Iraq and Syria, flying more than 120 combat sorties over 82 days. It is speculated they provided close air support for Special Forces missions. The experiment ended satisfactorily, but an Air Force spokesman stated it remains unlikely they will invest in reactivating the OV-10 on a regular basis because of the overhead cost of operating an additional aircraft type.
By 9th March 2016, nearly 11,000 airstrikes had been launched on ISIL (and occasionally Al-Nusra), killing over 27,000 fighters and striking over 22,000 targets, including 139 tanks, 371 Humvees, and 1,216 pieces of oil infrastructure. Approximately 80% of these airstrikes have been conducted by American forces, with the remaining 20% being launched by other members of the coalition, such as the United Kingdom and Australia. 7,268 strikes hit targets in Iraq, while 3,602 hit targets in Syria. On 12th June 2016, it was reported that 120 ISIL leaders, commanders, propagandists, recruiters and other high-value individuals were killed so far this year.
Until March 2016, U.S. military members were ineligible for Campaign Medals and other service decorations due to the continuing ambiguous nature of the continuing U.S. involvement in Iraq. However, on 30th March 2016, U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter announced the creation of a new medal, named “Inherent Resolve Campaign Medal”.
On 3rd June 2016, aircraft flying from the USS Harry S. Truman in the Mediterranean Sea began airstrikes on ISIL. On 16th June 2016, AV-8B II+ Harriers of the 13th MEU flying from the USS Boxer in the Persian Gulf also began airstrikes on ISIL, marking the first time the U.S. Navy used ship-based aircraft from both the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf at the same time during Operation Inherent Resolve.
By 27th July 2016, U.S. and coalition partners had conducted more than 14,000 airstrikes in Iraq and Syria: Nearly 11,000 of those strikes were from U.S. aircraft and the majority of the strikes (more than 9,000) were in Iraq. Of the 26,374 targets hit, nearly 8,000 were against ISIL fighting positions, while approximately 6,500 hit buildings; ISIL staging areas and oil infrastructure were each hit around 1,600 times. On 15th December 2016, the U.K. Defense Secretary Michael Fallon said that “more than 25,000 Daesh fighters have now been killed,” a number that was half of the United States’ estimate. When asked about this discrepancy, the UK’s Ministry of Defense said that it stood by his estimate.
Since the first U.S. airstrikes on ISIL targets in Iraq on 8th August 2014, over two years, the U.S. military has spent over $8.4 billion fighting ISIL.
BBC News reported in 2017 that according to the American think tank Council on Foreign Relations, in 2016 alone, the U.S. dropped 12,192 bombs in Syria and 12,095 in Iraq.
Operation Odyssey Lightning
From August to December 2016, the U.S. conducted another similar operation in Libya, code-named Operation Odyssey Lightning, during the battle to capture Sirte, which was the local capital of ISIL’s Libyan branch. In September 2017, the US Africa Command announced that 495 precision airstrikes were carried out and 800 to 900 ISIL fighters were killed during the operation in Sirte between 1 August and 19th December 2016. On 18th January 2017, US B-2 bombers bombed 2 ISIL camps to the south of Sirte, killing 90 ISIL militants.
According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Coalition airstrikes have killed 7,043 people across Syria, of which: 5,768 dead were ISIL fighters, 304 Al-Nusra Front militants and other rebels, 90 government soldiers and 881 civilians. The air strikes occurred in the period between 22 September 2014 and 23rd January 2017.
In March 2017, various media outlets reported that conventional forces from the 11th MEU, as well as special operations forces in the form of the 75th Ranger Regiment deployed to Syria to support U.S.-backed forces in liberating Raqqa from ISIL occupation. The deployment marked an escalation in the U.S. intervention in Syria.
By February 28th, the Coalition had conducted 3,271 sorties in 2017, 2,129 of which resulted in at least one weapon released. In total, the coalition released 7,040 weapons in Iraq and Syria in this same time period in an effort to destroy ISIL.
As of August 9th, 2017, coalition aircraft flew a total of 167,912 sorties, and conducted 13,331 strikes in Iraq and 11,235 strikes in Syria, for a total of 24,566 strikes.
In February 2018, the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division was awarded a campaign streamer following its deployment to Iraq. In May 2016, the brigade deployed to advise and assist, train and equip Iraqi security forces to fight the Islamic State of Iraq. The 2nd Brigade also conducted precision surface-to-surface fires and supported a multitude of intelligence and logistical operations for coalition and Iraqi forces. They also provided base security throughout more than 12 areas of operations. The Brigade also aided in the clearance of ISIL from Fallujah, the near elimination of suicide attacks in Baghdad, and the introduction of improved tactics that liberated more than 100 towns and villages. The 2nd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division also played a significant role in the liberation of Mosul.
In early 2019, the US-led coalition focused on the final assault on ISIS in the Euphrates pocket, including the Battle of Baghuz Fawqani in the first quarter of the year. Civilian human shields held by ISIS were among the victims, including in one reported massacre on 19th March in which up to 300 civilians, including 45 children, were alleged to have been killed by Coalition forces.
From August 8th, 2014 to August 29, 2019, coalition aircraft conducted a total of 34,573 strikes.
On 27th October 2019, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was killed during the Barisha raid in Idlib Governorate.
On December 31st, 2019, the CJTF-OIR reported its forces were “closely monitoring the current situation of the protests at the US Embassy in Baghdad”, adding that they were “taking the appropriate force protection measures to ensure [US Embassy personnel] safety”.
CJTF-OIR paused all training and anti-ISIS operations on January 5, 2020 to focus on protecting Iraqi bases hosting Coalition troops in the wake of several rocket attacks. This action was also linked to the anticipated response against Coalition forces in the wake of the killing of Iranian General Qasem Soleimani. In March 2020, the U.S. military started to withdraw from various bases in Iraq.
EA-18G Growler 168772, VAQ-131 “Operation Inherent Resolve”
In 2017 the aircraft carrier USS George HW Bush was stationed in the Arabian Gulf in support of Operation Inherent Resolve. The OIR mission was to strike the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria by flying hundreds of sorties, destroying enemy positions with smart ordnance. VAQ-131 “Lancers” was onboard to carry out airborne electronic attack missions. VAQ-131 re-equipped with the EF-18G Growler in 2014 and during OIR flew 1,890 hours completing 270 combat sorties. EA-18G 168772 was the personal aircraft of the squadron CAG, AJ500.
Century Wings and Hobbymaster Updated Photo Gallery
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Precision Model Art New Model Announcements!
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Hobbymaster Re-stocks at Flying Tigers !
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Lockdown 2…Flying Tigers Update.
Flying Tigers would like to thank you for your support in these difficult times.
All orders will be dispatched as usual and customer service should not be affected.
We will see some delays in delivery times as demand increases between now and Christmas.
Additionally all retailers are now seeing delays in deliveries into the UK from our suppliers.
The worldwide pandemic is having a major effect in distribution and shipping. Containers are arriving late and then due to port restrictions, they are being held at customs longer than they would in normal times due to Covid-19.
Please bear with us and our suppliers , as it is very difficult to give accurate updates on arrival times.
Due to Covid-19 there may be some disruption to service times from Parcelforce and the Royal Mail.
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